Normal Hair Growth and Common Hair Loss

Normal Hair Growth Cycles

Undisturbed, each terminal scalp hair usually grows continuously for about approximately three to five years. Then, the hair transitions into a resting state where the visible portion above the skin is shed. No hair grows from the follicle for 90 days. Once this time has passed, a new hair begins growing through the skin and continues for another three to five years at a rate of approximately 1/2 inch per month.

It is thought that as many as 100 genes are involved in regulating the creation, construction and cycling of scalp hair. To date, very few of these genes have been identified.

Common Pattern Hair Loss

Hamilton-Norwood Hair Loss Scale

For those concerned about hair loss, many myths and half-truths abound, but useful information can be difficult to obtain. Therefore, an objective overview of pattern hair loss is presented herein.

In healthy well-nourished individuals of both genders, the most common form of hair loss is androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as pattern hair loss. The disorder affects approximately 40 million American men. Perhaps surprisingly, the same disorder affects about 20 million American women. The difference between men and women is that a woman suffering hair loss usually retains her feminine hairline and experiences thinning behind this leading edge. In men, a distinct “pattern” of loss manifests where the frontal edge recedes at the same time that a thinning zone expands from the posterior crown. In more pronounced cases, these zones meet and the person is said to be clinically bald.

Three Triggers

Importantly, three things need to occur in order for one to be affected by AGA. First, one must inherit the genetic predisposition. This means that the problem comes from one or both sides of the family. Second, one needs to attain a certain age. Nine year old children do not experience pattern hair loss. And third, one needs to have the circulating hormones that precipitate onset and progression of the disorder.

Typically, the earliest onset of AGA occurs in late puberty or one’s early 20′s. As a general rule, the earlier hair loss begins, the more pronounced it is likely to become.

Hormones, Enzymes & Other Factors

Crystallography of DHT molecule
From a susceptibility standpoint, the principle hormonal trigger linked to pattern hair loss is 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone, commonly referred to as DHT. Intriguingly, it has been shown that in persons genetically insensitive to DHT, pattern hair loss does not occur. DHT is synthesized from the androgen hormone testosterone and is useful early in life and during puberty.

In adults, DHT is thought to cause significant harm, but very little good. Disorders as disparate as benign prostatic hyperplasia and pattern hair loss are both triggered by DHT. The synthesis of DHT occurs via two closely related forms of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Hair loss treatment options that efficiently interfere with the interaction between 5-alpha reductase and androgen hormones like testosterone have been shown to offer clinical benefit in treating pattern hair loss.

Because hair growth is regulated by multiple genes and attendant biochemical pathways, the underlying factors are extremely complex. Another challenge to understanding hair loss has been the fact that humans, alone among mammals, suffer from androgenetic alopecia. Thus, no efficient animal model exists that would otherwise tend to shed light upon the key factors at work.

Hair Loss Variations Other Than AGA

In either gender, the differential diagnosis is typically made based on the patient’s history and clinical presentation. The common differentials for AGA include alopecia areata (AA), Trichotillomania, and telogen effluvium. Less often, the cause of hair loss may be associated with disorders such as lupus erythematosis, scabies or other skin manifesting disease processes. Scalp biopsy and lab assay may be useful in ascertaining a definitive diagnosis, but, in such cases, should generally only follow an initial clinical evaluation by a qualified treating physician.

Pattern Hair Loss Treatment Options

It has wryly been observed that the choices for dealing with hair loss are “rugs, plugs, or drugs”. This quip articulates three treatment options that are more kindly referred to as non-surgical hair systems, surgical hair restoration, and pharmacotherapy. A fourth option has recently evolved, which will also be touched on herein. This is non-drug based therapy.

Non-surgical Restoration

Typical Hair Piece

Hair replacement systems have been in regular use at least since the time of ancient Egypt. These products also go by the term hair integration systems, wigs, weaves, hair pieces, toupees and many other names. All have one thing in common—they are not growing out of one’s scalp. Thus, they must somehow be attached either with the bald skin or the fringe of hair remaining above the ears and in the back of the scalp.

Such attachment to the living scalp is almost never permanent, and for good reason. Aside from the fact that the unit itself wears out, basic hygiene dictates that the wearer regularly remove the unit to clean the underlying hair and scalp. There are almost always three basic elements to a hair replacement system. The first is the hair itself which may be synthetic, natural, or a combination thereof. The second element is the base of the unit. Typically, the hair is woven in to a fabric-like base which is then attached in some fashion to the scalp. This brings up the third element; which is the means of attachment. Methods include sewing the base to the fringe hair, gluing the base to the fringe hair, or gluing the base to the bald scalp.

Potential advantages to hair systems include the immediacy of achieving a full hair “look” that can appear, to the casual observer, to approximate a full head of hair. The potential disadvantages of hair systems are many and varied.

In persons who are actively losing hair, vs. those who are essentially bald, the hair system itself may rapidly accelerate the process of going bald. Another disadvantage is the hard leading edge that can give away the fact that a person is wearing a hair system. In the past, this problem has been addressed by using delicate lace front artificial hairlines that look quite natural but tend to be extremely fragile.

Because they are nonliving, hair systems must be serviced and eventually replaced themselves. The costs of servicing and maintaining a hair replacement system are not insubstantial–and such costs can dramatically exceed the initial price of acquisition.

Surgical Hair Restoration

Surgical hair restoration, commonly known as hair transplantation, exploits a phenomenon first described in the 1950′s. This phenomenon, donor dependence refers to the observation that hair bearing tissue, when relocated to a previously balding area of the same person’s scalp, continues to produce viable, vigorously hair that persists in its new location as it otherwise would, had it not been “relocated”. In appropriately selected patients, surgical hair restoration can constitute a positive solution to pattern hair loss

There are important caveats to hair transplantation. The first concerns supply and demand. At the present time, one may not transplant hair from one person to another without causing a florid and destructive foreign body response in the recipient. Thus, both operator and patient are relegated to whatever permanent hair bearing tissue is in place. Accordingly, it is highly important to conserve and strategically place this precious resource appropriately.

The second major caveat to hair transplantation concerns achieving clinically beneficial endpoint results. A hair line that is spotty or too abrupt may look worse than it did before it was restored. By the same token, hair behind the leading edge that is not restored in a fashion that yields meaningful density (e.g. 1 hair per mm/sq) often fails to approximate a full head of hair. Therefore, in selecting a transplant surgeon, artistic excellence is at least equal in importance to basic surgical skill.

The third caveat to hair transplantation refers to a problem known as chasing a receding hair line. Because hair loss is progressive and relentless, it is possible that donor hair restored integrated into an apparently intact area of scalp hair may end up as an island of hair because the hair behind it continues to erode. In this situation, patients are compelled to augment hair behind the restoration zone in order to retain a full appearance. This works reasonably well until either the hair stops thinning or one eventually runs out of donor hair.

Ideally, for persons undergoing transplant surgery, it would be helpful to incorporate a treatment option that safely and effectively arrested the progression of hair loss, allowing the treating surgeon to fill in the thin areas without the concern of chasing a receding hair line.

Drug-based Hair Loss Treatment Options

From a treatment perspective, the two most widely used therapeutic interventions against pattern hair loss have been topical minoxidil and oral finasteride.

Minoxidil

Minoxidil, first sold under the trade-name Rogaine(TM) was initially developed as the oral antihypertensive drug, Loniten(TM). In some patients who used minoxidil to treat blood pressure problems, it was observed that unusual hair growth occurred on the face and scalp. This was somewhat colloquially referred to as the werewolf affect. >From this observation, topical compositions containing minoxidil were successfully tested on balding scalps. Rogaine(TM) (2% minoxidil) was the first hair loss treatment drug approved by the FDA for use in men. Eventually, Rogaine(TM) (2% minoxidil) was approved for use in women. Extra Strength Rogaine(TM) (5% minoxidil) was approved by the FDA for use solely in men.

The advantages of Rogaine(TM) include the ability to arrest, and possibly reverse, pattern hair loss. Based on Pfizer’s own marketing materials, Rogaine(TM) has primarily been shown to be effective in treating hair loss in the vertex and posterior scalp, but not the anterior hairline. Minoxidil is a potent drug with potential side effects that include hypotension and skin irritation.

Finasteride

Finasteride, a selective type II 5-alpha reductase inhibitor was originally developed, in 5 mg oral dosage, under the trade name Proscar(TM) to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Because BPH is linked biochemically to the same metabolic pathways that trigger pattern hair loss, it was hypothesized that finasteride could be clinically useful in both pathologies. From this work, Propecia(TM) (1 mg finasteride) was developed. In placebo-controlled studies on men with mild to moderate hair loss, Propecia(TM) was shown to produce clinically relevant benefit in arresting, and in some cases, reversing the progression of the disorder. Propecia(TM) is not indicated for use in women. Noted side effects include reduced libido, as well as reduced ejaculate volume. Gynecomastia (male breast enlargement) is another potential side effect. Finasteride can also artificially lower the levels of a key protein (PSA) used to screen for prostate cancer. Finasteride is considered a teratogen (may cause feminizing birth defects) and should not be handled by pregnant women or even those persons who may come into contact with pregnant women.

Dutasteride

Like finasteride, dutasteride was originally developed to treat BPH. Unlike finasteride however, dutasteride inhibits both isoforms of 5-alpha reductase, while finasteride inhibits only type II 5-alpha reductase. Interestingly, a clinical study undertaken by GlaxoSmithKline, the EPICS trial, did not find dutasteride to be more effective than finasteride in treating BPH.

At the present time, dutasteride is approved to treat BPH. Clinical trials for dutasteride as a hair loss drug were undertaken, but halted in late 2002. Potential side effects noted with the use of dutasteride include gynecomastia, changes to PSA levels, teratogenic effects and others that closely parallel the negative side effect profile described by the makers of finasteride.

In December 2006, GlaxoSmithKline embarked on a new Phase III, six month study in Korea to test the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a once-daily dose of dutasteride (0.5mg) for the treatment of AGA in the vertex region of the scalp (types IIIv, IV and V on the Hamilton-Norwood scale). The future impact that this study will have on the FDA’s approval or disapproval of Avodart for the treatment of male pattern baldness in the United States is yet to be determined.

Other Drugs

On occasion, but specifically in female patients drugs including spironalactone & flutamide have, on occasion been used off-label to treat various forms of hair loss. Each drug comes with a host of potential side effects, and none has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of pattern hair loss.

Non-drug based Hair Loss Treatment Options

Recently, botanically derived substances have come under serious investigation as potentially useful tools against AGA. This effort has been largely pioneered by the makers of HairGenesis(TM). After the creation of HairGenesis(TM) a number of other products came on the market. Some incorporated drugs like minoxidil. Others, used variations on the theme of non-drug based formulations. However, aside from HairGenesis(TM), none has been supported with a third party, IRB monitored, placebo-controlled, double blind study–published in the peer-reviewed medical literature. This makes HairGenesis(TM) unique in the category. For those wishing to see how HairGenesis(TM) is thought to compare to other hair loss treatment options, a review of the HairGenesis(TM) Comparison Page is encouraged.

Inasmuch as the bulk of this website focuses on the benefits associated with HairGenesis(TM), the numerous points in favor of HairGenesis(TM) treatment will not be reiterated herein. Two points are relevant to the present discussion, however, and will be concisely articulated.

First, the complex of naturally derived active substances used in HairGenesis(TM) have been shown to operate through pathways and mechanisms that are unique from one another, as well as separate and apart from those within which drug-based treatments work. Suffice to say that this observation has presented a unique opportunity to develop HairGenesis into a “cocktail” treatment wherein formulation synergy would most likely occur.

In plain English, this means that HairGenesis(TM) has been designed to be greater than the sum of its parts.

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Treatment For Thinning Hair (Minoxidil 5% And Aminexil Sp94 Retinol) Hair Loss Male And Female

Contains 5% Minoxidil and Aminexil SP94

1. Uses tiny micro spheres called nanosomes that are used to encapsulate the active ingredients in a lotion compound
2. Works faster and better than medications containing only Minoxidil with similar tolerability and side effects
3. Allows patients to re-grow normally thick and healthy hair
4. May work for patients who previously did not respond to Minoxidil treatment
5. Intended for both the crown of the scalp and frontal baldness (receding hairline)

What is MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL?

MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL is the world’s most effective topical hair loss treatment designed for androgenic alopecia and other types of hair loss in men. Clinically proven to help re-grow hair, it is also significantly more effective then RogaineĀ® or any other topical hair loss treatment currently available.

Through extensive research and testing, dermatologists found that coupling retinol (a vitamin-A derived substance) with Minoxidil produced dramatically better results than just using Minoxidil alone. Retinol helps control the proper functioning of the sebaceous glands. The sebaceous glands produce sebum on the scalp. Sebum contains DHT (DHT which is produced from testosterone is the androgen thought to be most responsible for male pattern baldness), which is then reabsorbed into the hair follicles to do further damage. Proper moderation of the sebaceous glands and their production of sebum can help control skin scalp DHT levels and when combined with Minoxidil further helps prevent androgen related hair loss.

The Vitamin Complex is rich in Biotin and Mineral Salts and provides energy and accelerates the metabolism of the hair follicle. Physical and emotional stresses contribute to hair loss by causing hormonal disturbances as well as a lack of vitamins and mineral salts. In this state, the entire metabolism speeds up, activating the production of hormones, which stimulate the sebaceous glands, causing a build up of grease on the scalp, which “suffocates” the roots, weakening the hair and causing it to fall out. These factors can be the cause of hair loss and can significantly accelerate hereditary hair loss. MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL targets this problem with a unique vitamin complex from the finest raw ingredients. Ivy, Hops and Capsicum Herbal Extracts penetrate deep into the scalp next to the roots, speeding up the circulation and the nutrition of the affected tissues, recovering the weakened hair strands.

This formula promotes better circulation to the scalp, addresses damaging free radicals with potent antioxidants, helps to block DHT and fights harmful bacteria. This dramatically boosts the effectiveness of Minoxidil and Aminexil SP94 and promotes hair that is healthy and strong. DS Laboratories proprietary nanosomes act as the carrier enhancement agent. These nanosomes are about 10 times smaller then cells and penetrate deep into the epidermis and continuously release the active herbal extracts over a 12-hour period. This allows penetration deeper into the hair follicle then other carrier agent including Tretinoin or Azelaic Acid and further enhances the performance of all the ingredients in MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL.

What does MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL do ?

Like any other topical hair loss treatment such as Rogaine or Aminexil, MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL will be most effective in early stages of hair loss. However, many users who did not respond to the Rogaine or Aminexil treatment may see results with MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL including users with advanced stages of hair loss. You can also expect more pronounced and faster results (thicker fuller hair with result after just 3 months of use) then with either Rogaine or Aminexil alone.

If your hair loss is caused by hereditary factors then continued use will be required to maintain new hair growth. If you discontinue use of MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL then hair that grew under the treatment will begin to fall out over a period of 2 – 3 months. There is no “cure” for hair loss; MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL simply allows you to control hair loss.

If the cause of hair loss is related to other factors such as diet, emotional or physical stress, and hormonal changes then it is possible to completely discontinue the use of MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL and retain the newly grown hair.

What are the Active Ingredients in MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL ?

Minoxidil 5%: Clinically proven to help re-grow hair; approved by the FDA in treating male-pattern hair loss for more then 15 years.

Aminexil SP94: Clinically proven to help re-grow hair; Aminexil is a patented molecule that is the result of over 10 years of research at L’Oreal laboratories. Research has indicated that hair loss is linked to the stiffening of the hair roots and Aminexil has been specifically developed to prevent the stiffening and premature aging of the roots.)

Retinol: Has been shown to improve the absorption and effectiveness of Minoxidil; Minoxidil and Retinol is often prescribed together by dermatologists

Vitamin Complex: Accelerates the metabolism of the hair follicle.

Herbal Extracts: Provides circulation and nutrition to the affected tissues).

Nanosomes: Microscopic capsules deliver active ingredients deeper into the tissue.

Adenosinez: Powerful hair regrowth agent, similar action to Minoxidil with no side effects.

Procyanidin B-2 and C-1: Hair regrowth agent with no side effects, exceptional results when combined with minoxidil.

The addition of Adenosince and Procyanidin B-2 and C-1 is a recent innovation that further boosts the performance of MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL. Both compounds are encapsulated in our proprietary nanosomes. MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL is the only formulation in the world that delivers Adenosine and Procyanidin B-2 and C-1 in a nanosomal carrier agent. MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL works by combining the effectiveness of each of the active ingredients and simultaneously combating various causes of hair loss. This formula also enhances the action of each ingredient to grow normally strong and healthy hair which is not possible to achieve with any of the active ingredients alone. MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL produces more rapid results then Rogaine and produces effective results in users who previously did not respond to the Rogaine treatment. MINOXIDIL 5% and AMINEXIL SP94 / RETINOL can also treat hair loss on the entire scalp including the frontal areas, while RogaineĀ® (pure Minoxidil) has only been shown effective on the crown of the scalp.

Minoxidil has been tested in hundreds of clinical studies on thousands of volunteers and has been shown effective in the treatment of hair loss particularly on the vertex of the head. Minoxidil has been approved for use in treating male-pattern hair loss for more than 15 years. Clinical studies of the effects of 5% Minoxidil in treating male-pattern hair loss report that a majority of patients found: Very effective to effective results in promoting new hair growth over the period of treatment. Decreased hair loss. Minimal side effects. Results of the studies were evaluated by both patients and physicians; in one of the studies, physicians with male-pattern hair loss were included in the study population.

Aminexil is the only other clinically proven medication that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hair loss. Research at L’Oreal laboratories has discovered that hair loss in men and women is linked to the accelerated ageing of the roots characterized by the stiffening of hair roots. This causes the roots to become rigid and compresses the blood vessels that nourish and stimulate them. The roots weaken, and the hair falls out prematurely (alopecia). In men, the stiffening of roots gradually spreads; the roots produce hair that is increasingly fine and has an ever shorter life span. Aminexil is a genuine anti-hair loss innovation and fights against the stiffening of hair roots, closely linked to their premature ageing. Thus, Aminexil preserves the vital functions of the roots and helps to reduce hair loss. Aminexil is protected by an international patent and guarantees effectiveness verified by dermatologists.

Product Ingredients:

Minoxidil 5% (Meets Ep And Usp Specifications), Aminexil Sp94, Retinol, Nanosomes, Copper Peptides, Vitamin & Mineral Complex.

Why not call 0207 976 6868 and speak to one of our Westminster Trichologists who will be happy to help and advise you.

YOUR CONSULTATION AND ASSESSMENT IS FREE

THIS WILL CONFIRM WHAT IS THE VERY BEST OPTION FOR YOU

So why not take advantage of our expertise and get the facts so that you can make an informed decision on what is best for the future of your hair today.

TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR HAIR LOSS TODAY

SO THAT IT DOES NOT TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR LIFE

However, not all cases are treatable. But with early diagnosis and treatment you will give yourself and us the best possible chance to help you.

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Hair Loss

Excessive scalp hair loss is a severe challenge to a woman’s self image and her standing in business and society. Although we usually think of balding as a man’s problem, women actually make up forty percent of the people in North America experiencing the distress of excessive hair loss. Many women losing significant scalp hair have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Safe, effective, natural therapies that treat the hormone imbalances related to PCOS will also restore your hair to optimal health. I am delighted to offer you these indispensable tools to help you restore your hair and your health.

Women experiencing hair loss lose ground fast in today’s world. At work and in her personal life a woman’s appearance has much to do with her financial and social success. Men may also prefer not to go bald. But since balding is known to be caused by high levels of testosterone, a bald man may be credited with extra virility. There is no such happy story for balding women. The appearance of thinning scalp hair translates to a significant loss of personal power for women.

The medical community in general treats women’s hair loss as a minor health issue. Most physicians have little inclination to address the emotional distress you feel. In many cases physicians treat balding as if it were “only” a vanity issue; they may not recognize hair loss as a red flag pointing to serious metabolic conditions, including PCOS.

The psychological pain of hair loss and its effect on our sense of empowerment is as devastating as any disfiguring disease. If you are a balding woman, your hair loss is a life altering condition with profound consequences for your health. Getting your hands on the wheel and driving yourself toward a solution for hair loss is the first step toward reviving your sense of personal strength and power. If hair loss is part of PCOS, the effort you make to restore your physical health will also renew scalp hair growth.

You need expert help to properly diagnose the cause of your hair loss. Hair loss that could have been merely temporary may become permanent if you have a delayed or incorrect diagnosis. Misdiagnoses is perhaps the most frustrating aspect of hair loss for women. The information I present here will help you identify the cause of your hair loss and ideally lead you and your doctors to proper treatments for your kind of hair loss, sooner rather than later.

Alopecia is the medical term for excessive or abnormal hair loss. There are different kinds of alopecia. What all hair loss has in common, whether it’s in men or women, is that it is always a symptom of something else that’s gone wrong. Your hair will remain on your head where it belongs if hormone imbalance, disease, or some other condition is not occurring. That condition may be as simple as having a gene that makes you susceptible to male or female pattern baldness. Or it may be as complex as a whole host of diseases. Hair loss may be a symptom of a short-term event such as stress, pregnancy, or a side effect of certain medications. In these situations, hair grows back when the event has passed. Substances including hormones and medication can cause a change in the hair growth patterns. When this happens, growth and shedding occur at the same time. Once the cause is dealt with, hairs go back to their random pattern of growth and shedding, and balding stops.

Alopecia: A Common Problem

Today more women than ever are experiencing hair loss — and the causes are typically quite different that what causes balding in men. According to the American Academy of Dermatology, some 30 million women in the United States are experiencing some degree of distressing scalp hair loss. The most common causes of scalp hair loss in women can include:

Mineral or vitamin deficiency – zinc, manganese, iron, vitamin B6, biotin

Essential fatty acid deficiency from a low calorie diet or eating disorders

Protein deficiency, as is common with vegetarian diets

Anemia from a low iron diet, poor digestion or any excess blood loss

Eating disorders, like anorexia, bulimia, even ‘yo-yo’ dieting; also compulsive or excessive physical exercise

Drug toxicity, for instance anesthesia with surgery or chemotherapy for cancer

Many prescription medications have hair loss as a potential ‘side’ effect, including bromocriptine, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, amphetamines, anti-cholesterol agents

Severe infections, either viral or bacterial

Severe stress, either a sudden extreme event or persistent, long term challenges

Any hypothalamic or pituitary disorder

Any liver, thyroid gland, adrenal gland or ovarian disorder, including PCOS

Any sex steroid imbalance such as low progesterone, estrogen dominance, excess testosterone or insulin

Starting or stopping any hormone therapy, including birth control pills, menopausal hormone replacement treatment or thyroid hormone replacement

Any natural event that causes big hormone changes, like child birth, breastfeeding and weaning or menopause

Perms, hair color, bleach, improper brushing/combing, pulling on the hair

Autoimmune disease such as lupus or multiple sclerosis

Allergies to foods, medicines, environmental chemicals or topical drugs

Recent hepatitis B shot. If you had a Hep B vaccine since this hair loss started, there may be a connection. An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (278:117-8, 1997) links the Hep B vaccine to increased incidence of alopecia in women.

How does an individual woman figure out why she is losing too much of her hair? To understand that, it’s important to understand how hair grows.

Hair Grows in Cycles

Scalp hair grows about one-half inch per month. An individual strand of hair will grow for two to six years. Eventually each hair “rests” for a while, and then falls out. Soon after, that follicle will start growing a new strand. A healthy scalp will let about 100 of these cycling hairs fall out every day.

In folks with a genetic predisposition to hair loss, and for women with PCOS, hormones called androgens drive this process. Androgen hormones include testosterone, androsteinedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Men make and use relatively large amounts of androgens. Appropriate, smaller amounts of androgens are essential to women’s health as well.

In those who are genetically susceptible, testosterone activates enzymes produced in the hair cell, which then cause it to be converted into the more potent androgen DHT. DHT then binds with receptors deep within the hair follicle. Eventually, so much DHT builds up that the follicle begins shrinking. It can’t produce new hair reliably. Some of the follicles permanently stop producing new hairs. The end result is significant hair loss. The medical term for this condition is androgenic alopecia. Testosterone converts to DHT with the aid of the enzyme Type II 5-alpha reductase, which is held in a hair follicle’s oil glands. Actually, it’s not the amount of circulating testosterone that is the problem but the amount of DHT clogging up and shrinking scalp follicles, making it impossible for healthy hair to survive.

The process of testosterone converting to DHT, which then harms hair follicles, happens in both men and women. Usually women have a tiny fraction of the amount of testosterone that men make. It seems that for women with hair loss, the actual level of testosterone is not as crucial as are changes in the amount of testosterone she has. A shift in hormone levels triggered by lifestyle or other factors, will cause DHT- triggered hair loss in women. Even when hormone blood levels remain within what doctors consider “normal”, they can become high enough to cause a problem for an individual woman. The levels may not rise at all and still be a problem if you are very sensitive to even normal levels of chemicals, including hormones.

Because our hormones operate through a delicately balanced feedback system, with signals sent via the blood between the brain and body tissue, androgens do not need to be raised to trigger a problem. If the so-called female hormones, (which also are essential to men’s health) are for any reason shifting in relation to androgens, the resulting imbalance can also cause problems, including hair loss.

Hormones are always changing. Testosterone levels in men drop by as much as 10 percent each decade after age thirty. Women’s hormone levels shift with each menstrual cycle, or due to a lack of regular menses, in pregnancies and menopause. Eating disorders, excessive exercise, drugs and environmental toxins can also impact hormone levels.

Keys To Successful Treatment

Treatment of thinning scalp hair must be grounded in changing the habits you may have that support elevated androgens. Diet and exercise are key to maintaining optimal hormone balance. In fact, for women with PCOS, research is clear- there is no drug therapy more effective than proper diet and regular exercise. First, you get your foundational health habits in order; then, specific targeted therapies have the best chance of being effective for you.

Women with PCOS may also have excess coarse dark hair on their face and body. The only way to address the dark, coarse hair that grows out of follicles that have already been altered by excess androgens, is to destroy the follicle with laser or similar therapy. Once a follicle has changed the type of hair it produces, it will not change back. It is crucial to tame the excess androgens and prevent conversion of additional follicles, before investing in a therapy to permanently destroy facial or body hair follicles.

What Causes Women to Lose Too Much Scalp Hair?

For a long time doctors believed that androgenic alopecia was the main cause of balding in both men and women. Now we know that the process that leads to excessive hair loss in women is different. It is called female pattern hair loss.

An important difference between male and female balding is the pattern in which the hair loss occurs. Female pattern hair loss tends to happen as an overall thinning across all areas of the scalp, including the sides and back. Men lose hair from specific spots, like the temple, the crown, that bald spot in the back of the head. Male and female hormone and enzyme receptor sites are also in different areas of the scalp, causing the different gender related loss patterns of hair loss.

A second major difference is that balding in men is usually caused by a man’s genetics and his age, but for women, balding can happen at any age.

Lifestyle Choices, Illness and Medical Treatments Cause Hair Loss

Most women with hair loss have multiple features of their lifestyle, diet and health-related events that contribute. Sex hormone fluctuations are responsible for most female hair loss, including those who have PCOS, a recent pregnancy, menopause, hormone replacement therapy or birth control drug side effects. Chemotherapy for cancer, anti-coagulant drugs, iron- deficiency anemia, autoimmune disease can cause hair loss. Any disease involving hormone producing glands, including the thyroid, the adrenal and pituitary glands can trigger balding in women. It is essential for all women to learn the true cause of their hair loss before engaging any particular treatment.

The complex hormonal changes that accompany polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often result in scalp hair loss. Sometimes hair loss is the first sign that a woman is suffering the metabolic disorder that also causes problems with acne, facial and body hair growth, irregular menstrual cycles and infertility. PCOS is associated with increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers.

Thyroid disorders, anemia, chronic illness or the use of certain medications, particularly any form of hormone replacement therapy or contraceptive prescriptions- should be considered a possible cause of hair loss in women. Autoimmune disorders will result in somewhat different, often less dramatic hair loss known as alopecia areata — an inflammatory condition in which hair comes out in clumps or patches.

Any drop in estrogen levels, as happens after pregnancy, with menopause, or when changing your hormone therapy including birth control pill use, will cause what is called estrogenic alopecia. In contrast to testosterone, estrogen helps scalp hair grow faster and stay on the head longer, resulting in thicker hair. This is the reason women’s hair gets fuller during pregnancy when estrogen levels are quite high, then sheds several weeks after the baby is born.

For women who do not have fertility-related hormone changes, estrogen-deficiency scalp hair loss generally starts around menopause. This form of female hair loss can be the first sign of approaching menopause. Sometimes the alopecia won’t begin until a few months or even years after menstruation has ended. Not all women get noticeable alopecia after menopause but most have a little thinning.

It’s not uncommon to have multiple factors involved in female hair loss. Many women with PCOS have thyroid problems, usually hypothyroidism (low thyroid function). Not only does hypothyroidism contribute to weight problems, it can also contribute to hair thinning. Some women with PCOS have both an excessively high level of testosterone and an under active thyroid.

If your hair is thinning, you may have heavy metals like lead, mercury or cadmium in your tissues. These poisonous residues saturate our environment. If you have lived near what is, or ever was an industrial or mining site, or lived with someone who works in a polluting industry, you may be contaminated. If you have ever smoked tobacco, you have a lot of cadmium in your body.

The majority of women with androgenic alopecia have diffuse thinning on all areas of the scalp. Some women may have a combination of two pattern types. Androgenic alopecia is caused by a variety of factors tied to the actions of hormones including PCOS, using contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. Any blood sugar and insulin hormone imbalance will lead to excess androgens. Women with insulin resistance, from chronic over-eating of refined carbohydrate food, will see more impact from androgens. Insulin resistance is associated with PCOS as well as Type 2 diabetes. Chronic stress that depletes adrenal glands can change the levels of androgens a woman produces as well. This is often the source of problems like infertility, acne and hair thinning in lean, athletic women with PCOS. Heredity may play a role in androgenic alopecia.

Any big event like childbirth or breastfeeding, malnutrition from an alteration in your diet, a severe infection, major surgery, or any extreme stress, can suddenly shift much of the 90 percent or so of your hairs that are in the growing phase or resting phase into the shedding phase. You will see this shift in the rate of hair loss 6 weeks to three month after the stressful event. This is called telogen effluvium. It is possible to lose great bunches of hair daily with full-blown telogen effluvium. Usually this type of hair loss is reversible, if major stressors are avoided. For some women however, telogen effluvium is a mysterious chronic disorder and can persist for months or years, without ever completely identifying all of the triggering factors.

Anagen effluvium happens when the hair follicle cells are so damaged they can not recover or reproduce. This is usually due to toxicity of chemotherapy for cancer. Chemotherapy is meant to destroy rapidly dividing cancer cells. Hair follicles in the growing (anagen) phase, are therefore vulnerable. Anagen effluvium means the hair shaft narrows as a result of damage to the follicle. The shaft breaks off at the narrowing and causes the loss of hair.

Traction alopecia is damage from hairstyles that pull at hair over time (braiding, cornrows, ponytails, extensions). If the condition is detected early enough, you can change your styling practice to be gentler on the follicles, and your hair will regrow.

Hormone contraceptives are a leading cause of distressing hair loss and other symptoms in women. Since the birth control pill first began being used in 1960, oral contraceptives, injections, implants, skin patches and vaginal rings have become the most commonly prescribed forms of birth control.

Unfortunately, many young women are given contraceptive hormones even when they are not sexually active, as a ‘treatment’ for irregular menses or acne. This is a mistake. This is not a treatment that addresses the underlying cause of problem periods or pimples. Contraceptive hormones will severely complicate a woman’s hormone balance and can lead to many health problems, including significant hair loss and worsening acne.

All contraceptive drugs use synthetic hormones to suppress ovulation. These drugs cause your ovaries to stop working; they are in a kind of ‘sleep’ state. Instead of having your natural cycles result from a dance of signals between your body and your brain, your tissues are subject to synthetic hormones in amounts much larger than your body normally makes. There are many long and short -term consequences to ovarian suppression. Most women experience side effects using contraceptive drugs, including hair loss either during or several weeks or months after stopping the drug.

An article appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association (278:117-8, 1997) linking the Hepatitis B vaccine to increased incidence of balding in women.

Diagnostic Testing

In order to successfully treat hair loss, it is essential to understand why your hair follicles are not healthy. There are diagnostic tests that may help identify the underlying biochemistry that is contributing to your excess hair loss. However, many women with significant chemical imbalances related to their hair loss will find that these test results are within the “normal” range. That’s because in many cases hair loss represents a stage of ill-health that is an early phase of a disease that will eventually fully develop. The lifestyle and dietary habits that eventually cause Type 2 diabetes and heart disease will also cause scalp hair thinning and facial hair coarsening in young women. It is usually many years before these same women have diagnostic tests that reveal they are diabetic or have coronary artery disease. Many of these women have undiagnosed PCOS.

Selective Sensitivity is the underlying problem

Another reason why diagnostic tests may be confusing is because of something called ‘selective sensitivity’ or ‘selective resistance’. It turns out that some body cells are more sensitive than others to the same amounts of hormone. A major complicating factor for some women is that while her muscle and fat may be insulin resistant, other types of organ cells are not. The pituitary, ovaries, and adrenal glands of an insulin resistant woman are stimulated by higher levels of insulin than is desirable, which causes for instance elevated testosterone. The high levels of androgens in turn increase risk for heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.

Despite these possible difficulties, it is important to do our best to determine what is and isn’t the cause of a major symptom like persistent excessive hair loss. Diagnostic tests that can help identify the source of your metabolic imbalance are:

The hair pull test is a simple diagnostic test in which the physician lightly pulls a small amount of hair (approx. 100 simultaneously) in order to determine if there is excessive loss. Normal range is zero to three hairs per pull.

Hormone levels: Dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, androstenedione, prolactin, sex hormone binding globulin, follicular stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. It is ideal to sample for FSH and LH on day 19 to 21 of your menstrual cycle, if those days can be identified.

Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels as well as cholesterol and triglyceride levels

A complete blood count plus serum iron, ferritin and total iron binding capacity

Thyroid stimulating hormone plus a thyroid function panel including T3, T4, and T3 % uptake

VDRL to screen for syphilis

A scalp biopsy should be done before choosing surgical transplant

Densitometry, a magnification device, used check for shrinking of the hair shaft.

Conventional Medical Treatments For Hair Loss

You may be very interested in drug therapies of surgery to address the profound distress of excessive hair loss. It is simply human nature to hope for a simple pill or procedure that will permanently free us from our problems. Unfortunately drugs never actually provide a simple solution. Once you swallow a chemical, it is delivered all over your body; it affects your whole body. We cannot control drugs so they have only the effects we want- there are always side effects that are more or less problematic. Using drug therapy means trading one problem for some others. Sometimes this is exactly the right thing to do. Other times it is a personal disaster. Most drugs will act on all your tissues there is a danger of side effects that further damage your health. Topical treatments applied directly to the scalp use the lowest doses, and are the least harmful drug choices.

You will enjoy the best results when you begin any treatment as soon as possible after hair loss begins. Stopping the adverse effects of androgens means you can prevent further hair loss. And you can support regrowth from the follicles that were dormant still healthy. Depending on how the agent you choose works, stopping treatment will result in the hair loss resuming, unless you have also made other changes in your lifestyle that keep androgens at a level that is healthy and not harmful to you.

Below you will find a list of treatments currently being used to treat hair loss in women. Some of these drugs have not been approved by the FDA for this particular application, however they have all been approved for other applications and are used “off label” to treat hair loss. Currently 2% topical Minoxidil is the only FDA approved treatment specifically for female pattern hair loss.

The effectiveness of these agents and methods will vary from woman to woman, but many women have found that using these treatments has made a positive difference in the character of their hair and their positive self-esteem. As always, treatments have the best chance of being effective if they are geared to the cause of the hair loss as well as to triggering hair growth.

Estrogen and progesterone as hormone replacement therapy (HRT), typically prescribed for women undergoing menopause for any reason, is probably the most common systemic form of treatment for androgenic alopecia in women.

Oral contraceptives will decrease the production of ovarian androgens, and thus can be used to treat women’s androgenic alopecia. There are substantial reasons to avoid the use of either synthetic or bio-identical hormone treatments for your hair loss. Some birth control pills actually contribute to hair loss by triggering it or increasing it once it’s been triggered by something else. Any individual woman may have a selective sensitivity to any hormone combination- what is a low androgen effect formula for one woman may be a high androgen effect for another.

I am no longer able to recommend the use of birth control pills or other hormone-based contraception to young women. Decades of evidence suggest there are plenty of known, and possibly as yet unknown health risks associated with the use of ANY from of reproductive hormones, either prescription or over-the-counter forms. It is clear that the benefits of hormonal contraceptives are accompanied by significant risks, including making it much more likely that a woman will experience hormone imbalances that lead to a long list of negative effects. Hormone replacement puts you are risk for:

Depression or other mood disorders; decreased libido

Migraines and headaches

Breast lumps, tenderness and enlargement

Vaginal bleeding between periods

High blood pressure (hypertension)

High cholesterol

Blood clot in the leg, felt as: pain in the calf; leg cramps; leg or foot swelling

Blood clot in the lung, felt as: shortness of breath; sharp chest pain; coughing up blood

Heart attack, felt as: chest pain or heaviness

Sudden loss of vision or vision changes, which can be a sign of a blood clot in the eye

Cerebral vascular accident (a stroke): impaired vision or speech; weakness or numbness in a limb; severe headache

Liver damage, seen as: yellow eyes or skin; dark urine; abdominal pain

Allergic reaction: rash; hives; itching; swelling; difficulty breathing or swallowing

Acne

Bloating, nausea and vomiting

Changes in your eyes that make it more difficult to wear contact lenses

If you chose a hormone prescription for any reason, you should be sure to use only low-androgen content methods. If you have a strong predisposition for genetic hair loss, insulin resistance, diabetes, heart disease or any female organ cancer in your family I strongly recommend the use of another non-hormonal form of birth control.

Below is a list of birth control pills ranging from lowest androgen index to highest:

Desogen, Ortho-Cept, Ortho-Cyclen, Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Micronor, Nor-Q D, Ovcon-35, Brevicon/Modicon, Ortho Norvum 7/7/7, Ortho Novum 10-11, Tri-Norinyl, Norinyl and Ortho 1/35, Demulen 1/35, Triphasil/Tri-Levien, Nordette, Lo/Ovral, Ovrette, Ovral, Loestrin1/20, Loestrin 1.5/30.

The following hormonal contraceptives have a significant potential of causing hair loss or making it worse:

Progestin implants, such as Norplant, are small rods surgically implanted under your skin. The rods release a continuous dose of progestin to prevent ovarian function.

Progestin injections, such as Depo-Provera, are given into the muscles of the upper arm or buttocks.

The skin patch (Ortho Evra) is pasted onto your shoulder, buttocks, or other location. It releases progestin and estrogen continuously to prevent your ovaries from producing normal cycles.

The vaginal ring (NuvaRing) is a flexible ring that is inserted into the vagina. This method releases the lowest amounts of progestin and estrogen.

Minoxidil 2% Topical Treatment – Minoxidil seems to be more effective for women than men, for increasing scalp hair growth. The manufacturers of minoxidil recommend women use 2% minoxidil. There is a 5% solution available that has been tested and found safe enough for men. Because the makers of minoxidil have not invested in the expense of gaining FDA approval for promoting 5% minoxidil for use by women, it must be prescribed and used under a physician’s supervision. Small clinical trials on 5% minoxidil for women show that the 5% solution is in fact more effective in both retaining and regrowing hair than the 2 % solution.

Spironolactone (Aldactone) is a potassium-sparing diuretic used to treat high blood pressure and swelling. Spironolactone slows the production of androgens in the adrenal glands and ovaries. It prevents DHT from binding to receptor sites in the hair follicles.

Cimetidine (Tagamet) is a histamine blocker, approved to treat digestive tract ulcers. It prevents the stomach from producing digestive enzymes. Cimetidine also has been shown to block DHT from binding to hair follicle receptor sites.

Cyproterone acetate is used to reduce sexual aggression in men. Cyproterone acetate blocks DHT at hair follicle receptors. It has significant toxicity and long term side effects and is not available in the US.

Ketoconazole is a prescription topical treatment. It is primarily used as an antimicrobial for treating skin fungus. It suppresses production of androgens by adrenal glands, testicles and ovaries. Nizoral shampoo contains 2% ketoconazole. There is an over-the-counter version available. It has 1% active ingredient and is not as effective as prescription strength.

Finasteride is a drug that inhibits the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, an enzyme that deactivates DHT. It is sold as Proscar to treat prostate enlargement in men. Sold as Propecia it is approved by the FDA for male balding. Women should not take it if they are pregnant or might become pregnant because of the risk of feminization effects on a male fetus.

Surgical Implants

Since hair restoration surgery is an option for the vast majority of the balding men, women may want to consider it. However, the type of hair loss most women suffer from makes hair transplants a bad idea.

Few women have the type of hair loss that make them good candidates for a surgical solution. Most men lose hair in well-defined areas, for instance the receding forehead or the classic round spot on the top of the skull. Little clumps or plugs of hair are removed from areas where healthy follicles are stable and plentiful, and these are transplanted to other areas of the head. Women more often experience an overall thinning across their whole scalp, including the sides and back. Most women have few reliably stable donor sites. Offering to transplant hair from unstable donor sites is medically unethical and women must not allow their distress about balding to get in the way of a cool- eyed look at the rationale behind treatment options offered.

Are any women good candidates for hair transplant? Yes, some. A small percentage, 2% to 5% of women will have the type of hair loss that will benefit from this type of procedure. They are:

Women who have suffered hair loss due to non-hormonal causes, like traction alopecia.

Women who have scalp scars from some kind of wound or cosmetic surgery and want to repair hair loss around the incision or injury sites.

Women who have healthy and stable donor sites along with balding in a distinct pattern, like a receding hairline or thinning on the very top of the head.

Natural Remedies for Women’s Hair Loss

Safe, effective natural therapies are available to help you restore scalp health and increase hair growth. Like all natural therapies, in order to be maximally effective, it is essential to work with you as an individual. Some remedies will be more useful to you than others, depending on your unique, personal physical, mental and emotional health status. It is always important to spend your health care dollars well. I offer a consultation service to help you choose and make best use of the available options for treatment. Please visit your local ND to find out how to benefit from a personal consultation. You will receive recommendations for specific natural therapies, designed for your unique health status, to help you restore your health, and your scalp hair to it’s fullest and most enjoyable beauty.

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